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Socialistic Policies of Ancient China [2]: Monopoly
By Xinfajia   2017-12-01
Confucius hated monopoly; but monopoly was condemned before the time of Confucius. Some forms of monopoly, however, may be necessary for and beneficial to the society. To treat Confucius' theory in accordance with modern categories, monopoly may be classified first into two grand divisions, private and public; then public monopoly into fiscal and social, and private monopoly into personal, legal, natural, and business. Confucius opposes private monopoly, with few exceptions, though he is very glad to give special honor and wealth to men who possess extraordinary virtue or ability for the sake of society. According to the principles of Confucius, there is no reason why the government should grant legal monopoly to anybody except for a limited one, such as copyrights and patents, that is, for a limited time to those who contribute something to society, but not to those who are simply favorites of the court. As to monopoly acquired by natural advantages, Confucius positively does not allow any private person to hold it. Confucius does not permit private persons to have business monopolies, either. If such monopolies are unavoidable, however, a tax on the profits from them is necessary in order to equalize the distribution of wealth.
Socialistic Policies of Ancient China [1]: The Tsing Tien System (III - VII): The End, etc.
By Xinfajia   2017-11-01
Ancient China’s tsing tien system lasted for two thousand three hundred forty-eight years (2698 -350 B. C.). The essential ideas of modern socialism are not different from those of the tsing tien system. By the latter system, everyone got the whole of what he produced, because there was no landlord. When later the landlord was condemned, it was because he took too much of the product from the cultivators. It is the same argument as that of the socialist, who would allow no capitalist to take too much product of the laborer. In a word, the tsing tien system and socialism both aim at equality of wealth, and at allowing the producers to get all that they produce.
Socialistic Policies of Ancient China [1]: The Tsing Tien System (II): Of Confucius
By Chen Huan-Chang (陈焕章)   2017-10-01
The tsing tien system is a group system based on territory. In the field, one tsing is the unit of division, and consists of eight families. Regardless of any blood-relationship, the only basis for the group system is territory. Therefore, the tsing tien system is not an ethnical society, but an economic, ethical, social, political and military society.... When the land of the district is divided into different tsing, the people live together according to the same tsing. Therefore, they render all friendly offices to one another in their going out and coming in, aid one another in keeping watch and ward, and sustain one another in sickness. Thus the people are brought to live in affection and harmony.
Socialistic Policies of Ancient China [1]: The Tsing Tien System (I): History
By Chen Huan-Chang (陈焕章)   2017-09-01
The tsing tien system is the most important element in Chinese economic thought and history. According to a few modern scholars, this system was never in actual operation, but only a theory of Confucians. It is true that in ancient times, the tsing tien system could not have been as perfect as the Confucians taught; but it is also true that this system had been partly realized before the time of Confucius.
Socialism in Ancient China: Report on a seminar
By Xinfajia   2017-08-01
China's politico-economic system in remote antiquity was characterized by, among other factors, effective institutions ensuring state ownership of land and of natural resources, the former in the form of the "nine squares" land system. Socialist theories and practices in ancient China was the result of natural social evolution from the genes and tradition of public ownership-based economy and moral virtue-guided politics typical of Chinese civilization.
Guanzi (《管子》) -- Non-Hegemonic Political Economy(12-15): On Employment, Welfare, Market Revolution & Value Theory
By Li Xuejun (李学俊)   2013-07-02
Guanzi touched all the major topics in political economy with extensive and profound analyses, some of which were already quite mature, advanced and sophisticated, such as its systematic theories on market economy and on macro-economic regulation and control of the market.
Guanzi (《管子》) -- Non-Hegemonic Political Economy(8-11): On Statism, Law, Finance, & Sustainability
By Li Xuejun (李学俊)   2013-06-01
Guan Zhong believed that a state-regulated market economy was the fundamental guarantee against business tycoons plundering common people and an important means of securing social stability and effective management of the state. He espoused and implemented the rule of GOOD law over the market and the state, stood for an income-expenditure balance,...
Guanzi (《管子》) -- Non-Hegemonic Political Economy (7): On Macro-Control -- Goods, Currency and Administrative Regulation
By Li Xuejun (李学俊)   2013-05-01
According to Guan Zhong, the primary way to regulate the market should be through government control of the currency and grain prices. The state could use policy commands, open market operations, and treasure “luxuries” to adjust the currency supply-demand relation.
Guanzi (《管子》) -- Earliest Masterpiece on Political Economy in Human History (6): Non-Hegemonic Theory On Government
By Li Xuejun (李学俊)   2013-04-01
Guan Zhong’s view on the function of government in regard with the market can be summarized in a nutshell: To use a modern metaphor, the government as the visible hand should protect the market as the invisible hand.
Guanzi (《管子》) -- Earliest Masterpiece on Political Economy in History (3 - 5): Non-Hegemonic Theory On Property Rights, Resources and Currency
By Li Xuejun (李学俊)   2013-03-03
Some scholars argue that only privately-owned properties can be clearly defined in property rights, but this argument did not match historical facts, because exchange of commodities started between clans and tribes in primitive societies which were based on public ownership ...
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