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Socialistic Policies of Ancient China [6]: Government Loans and Public Relief (1): Theories and Application
By Xinfajia   2018-11-01
The principle of government aid for the farmer was noted by Mencius. Government lending was with or without interest at different times and in different circumstances through different kinds of systems; the principle being that the borrower should not make private profit at public expense and that the people were benefited without loss to the government while usury was prevented. The results of practicing this principle varied, depending on the different systems and different administrators at different times of history.
 
 
Socialistic Policies of Ancient China [5]: Government Control of Grain (2): Distribution and Government Loans of Grain
By Xinfajia   2018-10-01
In ancient China the whole empire was an agricultural community, so that the grain was not only the subject of production and consumption, but also the means of exchange and distribution (equivalent of money). Government lending of grain was practiced during the Chou dynasty to prevent usury. Besides, during Sui dynasty, the government introduced the system of village granary to store grain against bad years, which embodied the principle of "taking away the surplus to fill the insufficiency". It was carried on and improved through Tang dynasty.
 
 
Socialistic Policies of Ancient China [5]: Government Control of Grain (1): Price Equalization
By Xinfajia   2018-09-01
As a food supply has been necessary for human life through all ages, and China has been an agricultural country for thousand of years, the grain problem has been one of the greatest problems in its economic history. The policy of equalizing the price of grain is of chief importance, because it affects the interest of the whole society. For instance, Li K'o, minister of Wei, adopted a policy which benefited both society as a whole and the agricultural class. His main idea was for the welfare of the people only, and not for the finances of the state, but the result was that he not only made the people rich, but also made the state strong. This same principle was also supported by Mencius. And it was adopted into the historically famous system of "Constantly Normal Granary", a regulatory system for maintaining the balance of the market ...
 
 
Socialistic Policies of Ancient China [4]: Government Control of Demand and Supply (2): Practitioners (continued)
By Xinfajia   2018-08-01
Lu An, commissioner of transportation in Tang dynasty, thought that a good government should show its love for its people not by bounty, but by the adjustment of their production. In normal years, he bought commodities at the market price, and in bad years he sold them for the relief of the people. Wang An-shih of Sung dynasty revived Lu An's system of equal transportation and also established a system of exchanges which operated in such a way that capitalists could not make unjust profits.
 
 
Socialistic Policies of Ancient China [4]: Government Control of Demand and Supply (1): General Principles and Practitioners
By Xinfajia   2018-07-01
I. General Principles: The government should level prices by the adjustment of demand and supply to guarantee the cost of the producer and satisfy the wants of the consumer, with the chief aim to destroy all monopoly so that both non-monopoly producers and consumers are protected. II. Sang Hung-yang. III. Wang Mang -- Both Sang and Wang and some others (in next installment) were practioners of the above principle.
 
 
Socialistic Policies of Ancient China [3]: Exclusion of the Ruling Class from the Economic Field
By Xinfajia   2018-02-01
The Confucians exclude salaried officials from the gainful occupations. This has a great influence on Chinese economic life. In China's history there are very few officials who accumulated a great fortune in any way they could. Modesty and purity were the general spirit of the officials. As they did not compete with the common people for profits, the people had much more chance to compete among themselves, and enjoyed full freedom of economic activity without being in unfavorable competition with those who had added power.
 
 
Socialistic Policies of Ancient China [2]: Monopoly
By Xinfajia   2017-12-01
Confucius hated monopoly; but monopoly was condemned before the time of Confucius. Some forms of monopoly, however, may be necessary for and beneficial to the society. To treat Confucius' theory in accordance with modern categories, monopoly may be classified first into two grand divisions, private and public; then public monopoly into fiscal and social, and private monopoly into personal, legal, natural, and business. Confucius opposes private monopoly, with few exceptions, though he is very glad to give special honor and wealth to men who possess extraordinary virtue or ability for the sake of society. According to the principles of Confucius, there is no reason why the government should grant legal monopoly to anybody except for a limited one, such as copyrights and patents, that is, for a limited time to those who contribute something to society, but not to those who are simply favorites of the court. As to monopoly acquired by natural advantages, Confucius positively does not allow any private person to hold it. Confucius does not permit private persons to have business monopolies, either. If such monopolies are unavoidable, however, a tax on the profits from them is necessary in order to equalize the distribution of wealth.
 
 
Socialistic Policies of Ancient China [1]: The Tsing Tien System (III - VII): The End, etc.
By Xinfajia   2017-11-01
Ancient China’s tsing tien system lasted for two thousand three hundred forty-eight years (2698 -350 B. C.). The essential ideas of modern socialism are not different from those of the tsing tien system. By the latter system, everyone got the whole of what he produced, because there was no landlord. When later the landlord was condemned, it was because he took too much of the product from the cultivators. It is the same argument as that of the socialist, who would allow no capitalist to take too much product of the laborer. In a word, the tsing tien system and socialism both aim at equality of wealth, and at allowing the producers to get all that they produce.
 
 
Socialistic Policies of Ancient China [1]: The Tsing Tien System (II): Of Confucius
By Chen Huan-Chang (陈焕章)   2017-10-01
The tsing tien system is a group system based on territory. In the field, one tsing is the unit of division, and consists of eight families. Regardless of any blood-relationship, the only basis for the group system is territory. Therefore, the tsing tien system is not an ethnical society, but an economic, ethical, social, political and military society.... When the land of the district is divided into different tsing, the people live together according to the same tsing. Therefore, they render all friendly offices to one another in their going out and coming in, aid one another in keeping watch and ward, and sustain one another in sickness. Thus the people are brought to live in affection and harmony.
 
 
Socialistic Policies of Ancient China [1]: The Tsing Tien System (I): History
By Chen Huan-Chang (陈焕章)   2017-09-01
The tsing tien system is the most important element in Chinese economic thought and history. According to a few modern scholars, this system was never in actual operation, but only a theory of Confucians. It is true that in ancient times, the tsing tien system could not have been as perfect as the Confucians taught; but it is also true that this system had been partly realized before the time of Confucius.
 
 
 
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